Sails of large dinosaurs added considerably to the skin area of their bodies, with minimum increase of volume. [8][9] The skull of Spinosaurus was long, low and narrow, similar to that of a modern crocodilian, and bore straight conical teeth with no serrations. [46] Gimsa and others point out that more basal, long-legged spinosaurids had otherwise round or crescent-shaped dorsal sails, whereas in Spinosaurus, the dorsal neural spines formed a shape that was roughly rectangular, similar in shape to the dorsal fins of sailfish. Furthermore, the study found that Spinosaurus had to continually paddle its hind legs to prevent itself from tipping over onto its side, something that extant semiaquatic animals do not need to perform. margin. It's skull was, as for the other Spinosaurids, crocodile-like. FIGHT! Spinosaurus appeared in the 2001 film Jurassic Park III, replacing Tyrannosaurus as the main antagonist. This behaviour might also have been one reason for Spinosaurus’ muscular chest and neck reported by Ibrahim and colleagues (2014). It would have had large, robust forelimbs bearing three-fingered hands, with an enlarged claw on the first digit. Spinosaurus (meaning "spine lizard") is a genus of spinosaurid dinosaur that lived in what now is North Africa during the Cenomanian to upper Turonian stages of the Late Cretaceous period, about 99 to 93.5 million years ago. [18], UCPC-2 in the University of Chicago Paleontological Collection consists mainly of two narrow connected nasals with a fluted (ridged) crest from the region between the eyes. For instance, Spinosaurus was about 49 feet tall (comparable to a 5 story building), and weighed between 7-20 tons, or about the equivalent of 3 male elephants. Spinosaurus is 18 to 25 metres long, 7,5 metres hight and 14 tons weight. Spinosaurus was even bigger than the T-rex, and new discoveries indicate you wouldn't have been safe even in the water. According to Ibrahim "It was probably much heavier. It's skull is the longest of any theropod, estimated to be 5.7 feet (1.75meters). Spinosaurus was really the predatory animal. [42], Spinosaurus sails were unusual, although other dinosaurs, namely Ouranosaurus, which lived a few million years earlier in the same general region as Spinosaurus, and the South American sauropod Amargasaurus, might have developed similar structural adaptations of their vertebrae. Estimates have placed its weight in comparable range to the Tyrannosaurus, between six and nine tons. Spinosaurus lived 112 to 97 million years ago. [7], From the caudal vertebrae of the tail projected significantly elongated, thin neural spines, akin to the condition observed in some other spinosaurids,[21] though to a more extreme degree. There were six or seven teeth on each side of the very front of the upper jaw, in the premaxillae, and another twelve in both maxillae behind them. [52][8], Recent studies of the tail vertebrae of Spinosaurus refute Henderson's proposal that Spinosaurus mainly inhabited areas of land near and in shallow water and was too buoyant to submerge. It was the largest carnivorous dinosaurs,12.6–18 metres in length and 7 to 20.9 tonnes in weight. The lengths of the neural spines reached over 10 times the diameters of the centra (vertebral bodies) from which they extended. As for mass, my ~20-32 ton estimate for the new specimen is so much higher than Dal Sasso et al. [12] Of the nine neural spines whose heights are given, the longest ("i," associated with a dorsal vertebra) was 1.65 meters (5.4 ft) in length. A giant predator on both land and water, similar to the present day crocodile, fossils prove that the Spinosaurus was as larger or larger than the Tyrannosaurus Rex. Dal Sasso et al. "[69] He has since retracted the statement about T. rex being a scavenger. We now have better tools to estimate the weight (e.g., a more accurate digital model). Lapparent, A.F. The Spino Zord is a navy and yellow Spinosaurus that was created by Shelby with the help of Zenowing. [43], Spinosaurus gives its name to the dinosaur family Spinosauridae, which includes two subfamilies: Baryonychinae and Spinosaurinae. Dinosaurs lived in the Mesozoic Era which took place between 245 and 66 million years ago. Current Population Estimate. [11], MNHN SAM 124, housed at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, is a snout (consisting of partial premaxillae, partial maxillae, vomers, and a dentary fragment). Spinosaurus Weight. The authors postulated that Spinosaurus switched between terrestrial and aquatic habitats to compete for food with large crocodilians and other large theropods respectively. I've heard 4 tons, 6 tons, and 8 tons (from … [21], In an upcoming 2020 paper written by Symth et al. By studying the buoyancy in lungs of crocodilians and comparing it to the lung placement in Spinosaurus, it was discovered that Spinosaurus could not sink or dive below the water surface. "Dinosauriens." The paper found that the hind limbs of Spinosaurus were much shorter than previously believed, and that its center of mass was located in the midpoint of the trunk region, as opposed to near the hip as in typical bipedal theropods. Select an item from the list on the right to compare related dimensions. [7] The body proportions of this specimen have been debated as the hind limbs are disproportionately shorter in the specimen than in previous reconstructions. [66] In the dry season it might have resorted to preying on pterosaurs. [21], The subfamily Spinosaurinae was named by Sereno in 1998, and defined by Holtz and colleagues (2004) as all taxa closer to Spinosaurus aegyptiacus than to Baryonyx walkeri. Small nostrils located in the middle of the skull. Tall spines grew out of its back vertebrae. [10] However, detailed drawings and descriptions of the specimen remain. [42] The neural spines were slightly longer front to back at the base than higher up, and were unlike the thin rods seen in the pelycosaur finbacks Edaphosaurus and Dimetrodon, contrasting also with the thicker spines in the iguanodontian Ouranosaurus. Since this is difficult for individual predators to achieve, they cooperate in this effort. Spinosaurus means "spiny lizard" due to the series of neural spines up to 6 feet (1.8 m) long protruding from its vertebrae. [50], A 2010 isotope analysis by Romain Amiot and colleagues found that oxygen isotope ratios of spinosaurid teeth, including teeth of Spinosaurus, indicate semiaquatic lifestyles. The strategies that sailfish and thresher sharks employ against shoaling fish are more effective when the shoal is first concentrated into a ‘bait ball’ (Helfman, Collette & Facey, 1997; Oliver and colleagues, 2013; Domenici and colleagues, 2014). Scientists say that Spinosaurus spent most of its time in the water and it was a semi-aquatic dinosaur. [68] The film's consulting paleontologist John R. Horner was quoted as saying: "If we base the ferocious factor on the length of the animal, there was nothing that ever lived on this planet that could match this creature [Spinosaurus]. Additionally, the study further indicates synonymy between Spinosaurus and Sigilmassasaurus. Although reliable size and weight estimates for most known spinosaurids are ... Oxalaia may have reached a length of between 12 to 14 m (39 to 46 ft) and a weight of 5 to 7 t (5.5 to 7.7 short tons; 4.9 to 6.9 long tons). Other known specimens consist mainly of very fragmentary remains and scattered teeth. The best known species is S. aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species, S. maroccanus, has been recovered from Morocco. While smaller dorsal sails or fins make the dorsal water volume better accessible for slashing, it can be speculated that their smaller stabilization effect makes lateral slashing less efficient (e.g. [18] It consists of a partial anterior dentary 11.5 centimeters (4.5 in) in length from an early Albian stratum of the Chenini Formation of Tunisia. maroccanus. When entering Battle Mode, the boomerang that would form one of the Spino Charge Megazord's weapons pops up from within the Spino Zord's sail. Many people used to think that the T-Rex was the largest carnivorous dinosaur, but the Spinosaurus comes out on top both in length and mass, sometime weighing twice as much. Spinosaurus is a large semiaquatic carnivore, feeding on fish and smaller animals. [42] In 2014, Ibrahim and colleagues instead posited that the spines were covered tightly by skin, similar to a crested chameleon, given their compactness, sharp edges, and likely poor blood flow. Spinosaurus was one of the largest or possibly the largest theropod dinosaur to ever walk the earth. Length: 50 feet. We are likely underestimating the weight of many dinosaurs, by the way." The quadrates show two different morphologies suggesting the existence of two spinosaurines in Morocco. The submerged dorsal sail would have provided a strong centreboard-like counterforce for powerful sidewards movements of the strong neck and long tail, as performed by sailfish (Domenici and colleagues, 2014) or thresher sharks (Oliver and colleagues, 2013). (2005) assumed that Spinosaurus and Suchomimus had the same body proportions in relation to their skull lengths, and thereby calculated that Spinosaurus was 16 to 18 meters (52 to 59 ft) in length and 7 to 9 tonnes (7.7 to 9.9 short tons) in weight. It maintains the speed and jumping ability of Velociraptor and combined with the stamina of Allosaurus, signaling that this animal is extremely powerful. [6][7][14] A 2015 re-description of Sigilmassasaurus disputed these conclusions, and considered the genus valid. Large animals, due to the relatively small ratio of surface area of their body compared to the overall volume (Haldane's principle), face far greater problems of dissipating excess heat at higher temperatures than gaining it at lower. [7], Spinosaurus had a significantly smaller pelvis (hip bone) than that of other giant theropods, with the surface area of the illium (main body of the pelvis) half that of most members of the clade. In 1912, Richard Markgraf discovered a partial skeleton of a giant theropod dinosaur in the Bahariya Formation of western Egypt. Spinosaurus was a large carnivorous Cretaceous period (112-93.5 Mya) dinosaur characterized by its large thin back spikes. Spinosaurus Since its discovery, Spinosaurus has been a contender for the longest and largest theropod dinosaur. In Ibrahim and colleagues (2014), the specimens of Sigilmassasaurus was referred to Spinosaurus aegyptiacus together with "Spinosaurus B" as the neotype and Spinosaurus maroccanus was considered as a nomen dubium following the conclusions of the other papers. The original remains were destroyed in World War II, but additional material has come to light in the early 21st century. It is possible that the sail of Spinosaurus was used for courtship, in a way similar to a peacock's tail. Furthermore, if the sail was turned away from the sun, or positioned at a 90 degree angle towards a cooling wind, the animal would quite effectively cool itself in the warm climate of Cretaceous Africa. The Dal Sasso et al. The Spinosaurus was a carnivorous predator who ate meat. Spinosaurus weighed 14,100-15,900 lb (6.4-7.2 metric tons). Today, whales are the only animal who are close to the size of dinosaurs. [10][11], The first described remains of Spinosaurus were found and described in the early 20th century. Diet: Fish and other aquatic animals. With the advantage of more expeditions and material, it appears that they pertain either to Carcharodontosaurus[14] or to Sigilmassasaurus. The Spinosaurinae include Spinosaurus, Sigilmassasaurus, Oxalaia, Siamosaurus, Ichthyovenator, Irritator from Brazil, and Angaturama (which maybe be synonymous with Irritator) from Brazil. [58] Scott Hartman also expressed criticism because he believed the legs and the pelvis were inaccurately scaled (27% too short) and didn't match the published lengths. It is also possible that the structure was used to radiate excess heat from the body, rather than to collect it. More like 10-12 metric tons. The contemporary spinosaurid genus Sigilmassasaurus has also been synonymized by some authors with S. aegyptiacus, though other researchers propose it to be a distinct taxon. They therefore argue that Spinosaurus used its dorsal neural sail in the same manner as sailfish, and that it also employed its long narrow tail to stun prey like a modern thresher shark. Fossil Location: Argentina. Spinosaurus had long phalanges (finger bones), and only somewhat recurved claws, suggesting that its hands were longer compared to those of other spinosaurids. The Baryonychinae include Baryonyx from southern England and Suchomimus from Niger in central Africa. Spinosaurus was larger than Tyrannosaurus. In addition, such a prominent feature on its back could make it appear even larger than it was, intimidating other animals. The elongated neural spines and chevrons, which run to the end of the tail on both dorsal and ventral sides, indicate that Spinosaurus was able to swim in a similar manner to modern crocodilians. 1. The environment inhabited by Spinosaurus is only partially understood, and covers a great deal of what is now northern Africa. 3. Dinosaur Discovery. The uses of such neural spines are heavily debated, from whether it was a hump that stored fat or if it was a sail. Disadvantages: Not as robust, teeth aren't as useable. Spinosaurus (meaning "spine lizard") is a genus of spinosaurid dinosaur that lived in what now is North Africa during the Cenomanian to upper Turonian stages of the Late Cretaceous period, about 99 to 93.5 million years ago. Carnivore. The first finger (or "thumb") would have been the largest. The Spinosaurus is thought to have measured around 46 feet long and weighed about 7.4 short tons. Domenici and colleagues (2014) postulate that these fin extensions enhance the accuracy of tapping and slashing. Neurovascular openings at the end of the snout. Anatomical structure. In the film, Spinosaurus was portrayed as larger and more powerful than Tyrannosaurus: in a scene depicting a battle between the two resurrected predators, Spinosaurus emerges victorious by snapping the Tyrannosaurus' neck. Coupled with the also elongated chevron bones on the underside of the caudals, this resulted in a deep and narrow tail with a paddle or fin-like shape, comparable to the tails of newts and crocodilians. Spinosaurus was a large carnivorous Cretaceous period (112-93.5 Mya) dinosaur characterized by its large thin back spikes. [19] This analysis was rejected in at least one subsequent paper. [6], MSNM V4047 (in the Museo di Storia Naturale di Milano), described by Dal Sasso and colleagues in 2005, consists of a snout (premaxillae, partial maxillae, and partial nasals) 98.8 centimeters (38.9 in) long from the Kem Kem Beds. He can combine with Ankylo Zord and Pachy Zord to form the Spino Charge Megazord, becoming its torso, head, legs, and weapons. The Mesozoic Era is divided into 3 time periods: Triassic (252 to 201 million years ago), Jurassic (201 to 145 million years ago), and Cretaceous (145 to 66 million years ago). [6] Using the dimensions of three specimens known as MSNM V4047, UCPC-2, and BSP 1912 VIII 19, and assuming that the postorbital part of the skull of MSNM V4047 had a shape similar to the postorbital part of the skull of Irritator, Dal Sasso and colleagues (2005) estimated that the skull of Spinosaurus was 1.75 meters (5.7 ft) long,[6] but more recent estimates suggest a length of 1.6–1.68 meters (5.2–5.5 ft). [12][10], Fragmentary additional remains from Bahariya, including vertebrae and hindlimb bones, were designated by Stromer as "Spinosaurus B" in 1934. Height (Head): 16.5’ | 5 mPeriod: Cretaceous (112-93.5 million years ago)Scientific Name: Spinosaurus, Drawings include:Spinosaurus side elevation, front, back, plan. [32][40] The Dal Sasso and colleagues skull length estimate is questioned because skull shapes can vary across spinosaurid species and because MSNM V4047 may not belong to Spinosaurus itself. Spinosaurus lived 112 to 97 million years ago. Weight. It is unclear whether one or two species a… The skull of Spinosaurus was long, low and narrow, similar to that of a modern crocodilian, and bore straight conical teeth with no serrations. Are extant, it is thought to have measured around 46 feet long and narrow tail deepened. - Carnivore/Piscivore does this massive dinosaur compare to the body, rather than to collect.! 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